Cybersecurity Publications


PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Russia-Ukraine war in cyberspace (Andrzej Kozłowski)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 15, August 17, 2022 The Russo-Ukrainian war, which started on 24 February has been the most significant armed conflict in Europe since the II World War. Alongside the traditional fight with artillery, tanks and ground troops’ fighting, it is also the first time when a cyber component is used on the wider scale by both sides. Many theoretical works have been published predicting how the war in cyberspace may look like but the war in Ukraine delivers actual answers to some questions bothering the experts and also brings important lessons for Poland. The myth of Cyber Pearl Harbor The term of cyber Pearl Harbor or 9/11 […]


PULASKI COMMENTARY: De-Westernisation of ITU (Andrzej Kozłowski)

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is again a place of clash over the vision of the Internet as the elections to choose the next head of the organisation are approaching. After 8 years of Chinese leadership, the one of the frontrunner in the elections is a Russian candidate. Does the ITU become a centre of promoting non-western vision of the Internet and therefore will contribute to limit the free flow of information worldwide?   What are we fighting  for? International Telecommunication Union is the specialised agency of the United Nations, which is responsible for information and communication technologies area. It was established originally in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union. […]


PULASKI COMMENTARY: NATO in cyberspace after Madrid summit (Andrzej Kozłowski)

The NATO Madrid summit, which took place on 29th-30th June was dominated by the hard military security driven by the war in Ukraine. However, the issue of cybersecurity and disinformation was not omitted and the important steps were included both in the final declaration and the new Strategic Concept. In the final declaration of Madrid summit, NATO members concluded that they are “confronted by cyber, space and hybrid and other asymmetric threats, any by the malicious use of emerging and disruptive technologies.” In the context of this threat not only Russia was mentioned but also China, which is a positive signal considering the robust Chinese espionage aimed at many members […]


PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Disinformation in Poland on the war in Ukraine (Andrzej Kozłowski)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 9, 2022, June 1, 2022 Poland has been playing a crucial role in the war in Ukraine. It has been providing a military, economic and humanitarian aid to this country and it has turned in the most significant hub for transportation and military deliveries. Last but not least, Poland has accepted the largest number of Ukrainian refugees and granted them many social privileges. Thereby, Poland has become the number 1 enemy of Russian propaganda and disinformation efforts. Disinformation before he Russian invasion in 2022  The first disinformation mechanisms on a large scale in Poland exploiting a topic linked to Ukraine appeared in 2013 during the second […]


Russian information war – Ukrainian front

The upcoming presidential elections in the United States and the migration crisis in Europe have serious consequences for the whole of the West. In the context of Russian-Ukrainian conflict, they enable the Russian Federation to undergo a number of actions in the area of psychological warfare, as well as to continue an aggressive foreign policy. In addition, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe find themselves in a peculiar situation, taking into account such factors as the serious government crisis in Kiev, the escalating political dispute in Warsaw, the new post-election reality in Bratislava, and the serious weakening of Angela Merkel’s position (and thus the position of Berlin, the strongest […]


Towards a system of cybersecurity – a review of the existing strategies and proposals for a new beginning

On February 23, 2016, the Ministry of Digitization published its “Assumptions of Cyber Security Strategy for Poland” document, announcing the legislative work of the Ministry of Digitization in the field of security concerning civil systems of critical ICT (information computer technology) infrastructure. This is the first project of the current government in the area of ​​cybersecurity, although similar legislative and policy initiatives have already appeared before. It should be noted, however, that the previous documents produced by the state authorities were not legally binding. They did not give legal authority to appropriate state entities, which made their full implementation impossible (‘cyberspace’ is the only term introduced into Polish legislation; its […]


The new strategy of the Department of Defense in cyberspace

At the end of April 2015, the newly-elected Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter announced the second strategy in cyberspace in the history of the Pentagon. The strategy presentation was held in Silicon Valley, the heart of the American IT sector. The published document replaced the strategy from 2011. Pentagon strategy from 2011 In 2011, the Department of Defense published its 13-page “Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace” (partly declassified). The strategy marked five initiatives. The first involved treating the virtual environment as another area of military operations alongside land, sea, air and space. This involved the construction of the relevant units and structures to operate in cyberspace, which led to the […]


Tallinn Manual 2.0

The 7th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon 2015), hosted by the NATO Cooperation Cyber Defence Center of Excellence (CCDCOE) in Tallinn, Estonia, is approaching at great speed. This year’s topic will be “Architectures in Cyberspace”. 2015 will also be when the second edition of the Tallinn Manual – dubbed “The Tallinn Manual 2.0” – will be published. The first manual, called the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, was published in 2013 after 3 years of research by a group of international experts, most of them coming from the field of international law. The CCDCOE, one of NATO’s Centres of Excellence, invited numerous experts of […]



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