Defence and Security Publications


Commentary: NATO Defence Ministers Meeting –  Alliance’s further adaptation to the threats emerging on the Eastern Flank

On Novemebr 8 and 9 North Atlantic Council (NAC) ministerial level meeting was held in the Alliance’s headquarters in Brussels. The meeting was an important step in the process of working out agenda for the 2018 Summit in Brussels. Among issues discussed was the reform of NATO command structure, as well as the future enhancement of Resolute Support mission in Afghanistan. One of the key talking points was an adjustment to the potential invocation of the Article 5 of the NATO Charter – a key aspect in a reality where the military and political climate on the NATO’s Eastern Flank remains tense. Following implementation of the new defence and deterrence measures adopted […]


ANALYSIS: Poland’s ‘Orka’ submarine program. Part 2. The Scorpène class submarines – Naval Group

On May 18 2017, the Pulaski Foundation organized the second in a series of three seminars concerning the ‘Orka’ submarine acquisition program, dedicated to the Scorpène-class vessels. The participants had the opportunity to familiarize themselves with detailed information on the French offer, delivered by representatives of Naval Group (formerly DCNS, Direction des Constructions Navales Services). Naval Group is currently perceived as the main competitor to the German shipbuilding industry in the field of modern conventional submarines. The French Navy decided to operate only nuclear submarines, decommissioning all conventional vessels. The French shipyard industry, however, continues to develop conventional submarines, actively seeking new contracts abroad. The Scorpène-class submarines were ordered by […]


ANALYSIS: The Middle East after the fall of the Islamic State core in the Levant

The liberation of the Iraqi city of Mosul at the beginning of July 2017, after more than nine months of bloody battles, as well as the probable occupation of the Syrian city of Ar-Raqqa, the self-proclaimed capital of the caliphate, raises questions about the future of the parastate brought to life by the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and the geopolitical shape of the Middle East after the fall of ISIS in the Levant. There are also questions about what the liquidation of the caliphate’s headquarters (established on the areas of Iraq and Syria conquered in 2013-2015) will mean, and whether the geopolitical situation in the heart […]


Poland’s Territorial Defence Force – Its Role, Significance and Tasks

More and more European countries are currently seeking an opportunity to extend the capabilities of their armed forces with limited funds. Since the 1960s, Poland have been striving to solve this issue by founding the Territorial Defence Forces, which used to be a part of a regular army. Given the disbandment of the 1st Mechanised Division and the Territorial Defence Forces, the potential of the Polish Armed Forces has been significantly reduced due to Poland’s military reform, which started in 2008 and lasted until 2011. In 2015, the new government brought back the concept of the Territorial Defence Force (Pol. WOT, Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej). Therefore, it seems necessary to consider […]


ANALYSIS: Russian nuclear triad – a threat or propaganda?

Despite the financial crisis, economic sanctions and technological difficulties, the Russian Federation is modernizing the Armed Forces within the framework of the State Armaments Program 2011-2020 (Rus. GPW 2020). The modernization of the strategic nuclear forces is considered in Russia as one of the priorities, since the nuclear forces determine Kremlin’s prestige and the position as a superpower. Currently, the nuclear war seems to be a strictly theoretical problem, particularly as far as strategic nuclear strikes are concerned. However, Russia perceives nuclear weapons as a political tool, which may be used against other countries. On December 26, 2014, President Putin approved the new ‘Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation’, which […]


ANALYSIS: The modernisation of the Polish Navy according to the ‘Poland’s Strategic Concept for Maritime Security’

On 10 February 2017, the National Security Bureau published the ‘Poland’s Strategic Concept for Maritime Security’, which tends to face a lack of clear and well-defined plan for Polish maritime force development. Given the structure of the Polish Navy inherited from the Polish People’s Republic (the fleet’s primary objective was to conduct landing operations), it was necessary to define a new strategy, which would consider contemporary geopolitical conditions. However, Polish policymakers have not taken such actions despite the fact that the technical modernisation plan for the Polish Navy was approved (primary functions of the Navy were described in the following documents: ‘Defence Strategy of the Republic of Poland’ published in […]


ANALYSIS: What next with Syria?

The bloody conflict in Syria has entered its seventh year. There are indications that it may be a significant year for a war that has already consumed hundreds of thousands of lives and has led the country to ruin. Unfortunately, the prospects of its end still seem distant. In the coming months Syrians may expect further consolidation of the major trends we have encountered in this conflict over the last couple of years. These include the survival of the regime of President Bashar al-Assad (after the breakdown the regime suffered in early 2015), with the gradual recovery of the areas of the country that had until recently been in the […]


The U.S. Election – consequences for nuclear security

Nuclear arsenal continues to play a narrow but crucial role in the U.S. military strategy. But, as most European NATO member states perceive the outcome of the U.S. 2016 presidential elections as ‘unexpected’, a debate on European nuclear deterrence capability as an alternative to the American one rekindles in major European capitals.  Sensitive issue of the future of nuclear deterrence strategy and nuclear arsenal in Europe requires urgent action and smart funding commitments, both by the U.S. and its European allies. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has sought to reduce the role of nuclear arsenal in deterrence of non-nuclear attacks on itself and its allies. […]

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