Economy and Energy Publications


PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The Russian troops on the Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant site. The potential consequences? (Jerzy Majcher)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 18, September 20, 2022 There is no doubt that the information about the invasion of Russian troops on the site of the nuclear power plant (NPP) in Zaporizhia provoked an emotional reaction not only in Europe but in the whole world. It led to the intervention of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna in the form of a visit of a group of inspectors representing various specialties, who arrived at the nuclear facility used for civil, not military purposes. The reaction of the institution established for the nuclear supervision is completely justified, because of the fact of the military incursion into the nuclear facility. Therefore […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Past, present and the future of the Ukrainian fuel sector. The origins of the fuel crisis and analysis of the viable support options during and post the Russian aggression (Piotr Przybyło)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 11, 2022, July 5 2022 There are a few reasons for the current fuel crisis in the Ukraine, which reflects itself in the massive shortage of this good in the country. The country’s pre-aggression fuel demand (do not mistake with the Russian aggression of 2014) was mostly met by importation and only a minor share of fuel was produced nationally in Ukrainian refineries. It should be noted that the domestic fuel production was still vastly based on imported oil. Fuel was imported from three main directions. Most of gasoline was transported from the south via Odessa – a main sea gate for the Ukrainian fuel import. […]


PULASKI COMMENTARY: The Intention to Attack the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant – Chaotic or Deliberate Action by the Russian Federation? (Mikołaj Oettingen)

On the night of 3 to 4 March this year, the Russian Federation carried out an attack on the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. This has raised concerns among the public in Western countries about the safety of nuclear reactors. Intentional action by the Russian Federation to destroy or damage the nuclear power plant seems unlikely. The most likely aim of the attack, apart from taking over the plant, seems to be to create disinformation about the potential possibility of damage to the reactors and an increase in radiation.  Site specification The Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant (Запорізька атомна електростанція – ЗАЕС) is located in the Zaporizhzhia Oblast in the town of […]


PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Costs and timeframes of construction of nuclear power plants carried out by potential nuclear technology suppliers for Poland (Mikołaj Oettingen)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 6, 2021, 23rd of June 2021 In recent months, nuclear energy has been an increasingly debated topic on the Polish political scene. This growing popularity of the Polish Nuclear Program concept is a direct consequence of the need to implement this type of energy into the Polish energy mix in order to fully decarbonise the Polish energy sector and thus achieve the climate objectives adopted as part of the European Green Deal. Increased popularity of nuclear energy  is manifested primarily by more frequent statements of politicians and experts, as well as promotional activities of potential nuclear technology suppliers to Poland. Clearly, selection of the right supplier […]


PULASKI POLICY PAPER: P. Przybyło – The last oil peak in the history of the world – geopolitical, sociological, and economic factors that shape the future of the Energy sector

Pulaski Policy Paper no 11, 2020, November 27,  2020 Current global energy consumption forecasts indicate that although renewables are set to expand by 50% between 2020 and 2025, they will not fully replace fossil fuels in our lifetimes. However, if recent geopolitical, economical, and sociological factors are taken into account, this prediction becomes obsolete. The world is about to enter a period of rapid energy transformation. At the end of 2019, modern renewable energy (excluding the traditional use of biomass) accounted for an estimated 11% of the total final energy consumption (TFEC) globally. The highest share of renewable energy use (26.4%) was in electrical uses excluding heating, cooling and transport. […]


PULASKI REPORT: The Real Financial Cost of Nord Stream 2 – Economic Sensitivity Analysis of the Alternatives to the Offshore Pipeline

In any economic analysis of Nord Stream 2 the first question to be considered is the actual cost of the project. Over the last couple of years, a variety of publications have provided widely differing cost projections. The recent data suggest that Nord Stream 2 capital investment will reach €9,5-10 billion. Yet, the €9,5-10 billion is not the final construction cost of the project. Nord Stream 2 will not fulfil its function in isolation. Without additional distribution gas pipelines on both Russian and European sides, on its own, Nord Stream 2 will only be a pipe leading from nowhere to nowhere. This means that a sufficient pipeline capacity needs to […]


ANALYSIS: The Nord Stream 2: the geopolitical dimension and possible influence of the U.S. sanctions on the project

Pulaski Policy Paper No. 3, 2018. January 29, 2018 In late November 2017 the Nord Stream 2 has been blamed by the U.S. Department of State for being Kremlin’s weapon of political blackmailing, which soon could be torpedoed by the U.S. sanctions against Russia[i]. The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline is the new route for gas transit that Russian Gazprom and its European partners – OMV, Engie, Royal Dutch Shell, Uniper and Wintershall – plan to build through the Baltic Sea to Germany. It has been criticised for threatening energy security of Russia’s Western neighbours, in particular Ukraine and Poland. However, since recent U.S. bill on sanction in July 2017, […]


ANALYSIS: Russian Energy Diplomacy: instruments and approaches

The understanding of close links between foreign and energy policy was first reflected in the Russian Federation’s 2003 Energy Strategy. Improving Russian position in international system through savvy use of energy resources is also one of the key goals of the next Energy Strategy – 2030. Moreover, the project of the future Russian Energy Strategy – 2035 has highlighted that a new key goal of energy policy for the coming years is to strengthen Russia’s position in the global energy markets. Therefore, one can read between the lines in all of Russia’s Energy Strategies that it aims at becoming a global energy superpower in the near future. Russian energy policy […]



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