Economy and Energy Publications


ANALYSIS: The Nord Stream 2: the geopolitical dimension and possible influence of the U.S. sanctions on the project

Pulaski Policy Paper No. 3, 2018. January 29, 2018 In late November 2017 the Nord Stream 2 has been blamed by the U.S. Department of State for being Kremlin’s weapon of political blackmailing, which soon could be torpedoed by the U.S. sanctions against Russia[i]. The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline is the new route for gas transit that Russian Gazprom and its European partners – OMV, Engie, Royal Dutch Shell, Uniper and Wintershall – plan to build through the Baltic Sea to Germany. It has been criticised for threatening energy security of Russia’s Western neighbours, in particular Ukraine and Poland. However, since recent U.S. bill on sanction in July 2017, […]


ANALYSIS: Russian Energy Diplomacy: instruments and approaches

The understanding of close links between foreign and energy policy was first reflected in the Russian Federation’s 2003 Energy Strategy. Improving Russian position in international system through savvy use of energy resources is also one of the key goals of the next Energy Strategy – 2030. Moreover, the project of the future Russian Energy Strategy – 2035 has highlighted that a new key goal of energy policy for the coming years is to strengthen Russia’s position in the global energy markets. Therefore, one can read between the lines in all of Russia’s Energy Strategies that it aims at becoming a global energy superpower in the near future. Russian energy policy […]


Nord Stream II – implications for the EU energy policy

In September 2015, during the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok, representatives of Russia’s Gazprom, along with Western companies E.ON, BASF-Wintershall, Royal Dutch Shell, OMV and Engi, signed an agreement to build a gas pipeline: Nord Stream II. The pipeline would consist of two lines, each with a transport capacity of 27.5 billion cubic meters per year. [1] The planned pipeline will transport Russian gas through the Baltic Sea to the European Union. The project aims to strengthen Russia’s position as a major supplier of energy to EU countries, and brings with it a great deal of economic and geopolitical consequences for Europe. Nord Stream I In Berlin in 2005, representatives […]


COMMENTARY: The diplomatic conflict between Russia and Turkey: a challenge to energy security

On November 24, 2015, the Turkish Air Force shot down a Russian SU-24 bomber. The President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, warned that this incident will bear ‘‘significant consequences’’ on bilateral relations. The conflict between Russia, a major oil and gas supplier to the EU, and Turkey, an important transit country, puts European energy security at risk. The Su-24 shoot-down President Putin denied allegations that the incident took place in Turkish territory. However prior to the shoot down, Russia had violated Turkish airspace on four occasions during the operation in Syria. Turkey warned Russia against such actions on prior occasions, yet intrusions continued. Moreover, Russia has a history of […]


How to effectively transfer technology? Lessons learned for the Ballistic Missile Defense programme from shale gas revolution in Poland

Conclusion of the tender for medium-range Ballistic Missile Defense (‘BMD’, codename “Wisła”) creates both opportunities and challenges for Poland’s defense industry. One of most promising aspect is the transfer of technology and know-how from American providers to local entities. In this respect, important lessons can be learned from the Polish Oil and Gas Sector’s (‘OGS’) shale exploration efforts which share several characteristics with the BMD project. First, both shale OGS and BMD rely on sophisticated, proprietary technology, which make their implementation a capital intensive process. Hence, localization of production is necessary to cut costs, and ensure profitability of investments. Moreover, prior adaptation of regulation and operational procedures is needed to […]


Energy Union – a key concept in the EU energy policy

In response to the energy crisis of 2009, the creation of an energy union has been promoted within the EU with varying degrees of commitment. Initially, the idea was called the European Energy Community, and was popularized by former European Commission President Jacques Delors and the former European Parliament President Jerzy Buzek. Their conception emphasised the creation of a common energy policy by developing energy solidarity mechanisms. While the name of the project as well as its main promoter (now Donald Tusk) have changed, the idea, proposed as a response to the energy crisis, is still valid. The consequences of the Ukrainian-Russian conflict have highlighted the need to take decisive […]


The significance of Polish-Lithuanian energy cooperation for the European Union

In recent weeks the topic of Polish-Lithuanian energy cooperation has returned. Consisting of the construction of an energy bridge and gas pipeline between Poland and Lithuania, the investment is strategic in nature, not only for the security of both countries, but more broadly for the Baltic states and the European Union itself. The project will contribute to the closing of the so-called Baltic Ring (an element common for the energy market, whose aim is to increase the transmission capacity of the Baltic Sea state), significant from the point of view of energy supply in this part of the EU. Recent events, and the possible consequences of the Ukrainian crisis, have […]


The political significance of LNG terminals

The Russia-Ukraine conflict has once again become a catalyst for action concerning Europe’s energy independence. Previous conflicts in 2006 and 2009 prompted the European Union to take decisions related to the development of energy infrastructure, where LNG terminals are playing a strategic role. The current conflict between Russia and Ukraine justifies the need for further efforts to enable the diversification of gas supplies to Europe, and to create instruments of EU energy solidarity. Download full policy paper as PDF



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