Foreign Policy Publications


Energy Union – a key concept in the EU energy policy

In response to the energy crisis of 2009, the creation of an energy union has been promoted within the EU with varying degrees of commitment. Initially, the idea was called the European Energy Community, and was popularized by former European Commission President Jacques Delors and the former European Parliament President Jerzy Buzek. Their conception emphasised the creation of a common energy policy by developing energy solidarity mechanisms. While the name of the project as well as its main promoter (now Donald Tusk) have changed, the idea, proposed as a response to the energy crisis, is still valid. The consequences of the Ukrainian-Russian conflict have highlighted the need to take decisive […]


Afghanistan after the ISAF – how to avoid failure?

The date of 31 December 2014 will not go down in Afghanistan’s history as a solely positive one. It could have been otherwise had the strategic and political conditions been different. This date, indicating the end of the 13-year-long combat military presence in Afghanistan of Western countries, will not be remembered as the moment when a new perspective opened before the country and its people in conditions of stability, peace and economic prosperity. The current reality in Afghanistan is far from stability in every way: from the socio-political and economic situation to the country’s security issues. The security situation in Afghanistan on the eve of the end of the ISAF […]


NATO Summit in Newport – Implications for Poland’s National Security

The NATO Summit in Newport, which took place on September 4-5, 2014, brought important decisions for Poland’s national security. The Alliance will strengthen its military presence on its eastern flank. In addition, the creation of the immediate reaction force (Very High Readiness Joint Task Force, VJTF) from NATO’s Response Force (NRF) will improve NATO’s ability to respond to crises. The summit has also served as the confirmation of the transatlantic bond. The member states have declared their will to gradually increase defense spending. The results of the summit in Wales should be considered satisfactory. From the point of view of Poland’s security, the following issues are of vital importance:Russia’s hostile […]


The ‘new’ government and old problems – the political and economic situation in Macedonia

In the spring of 2014 both rounds of the presidential elections (April 13 and April 27) and early parliamentary elections (April 27) took place in Macedonia. The winner was the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE). The party of the current Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski, it has ruled the country since 2006. Gjorge Ivanov, the former President of the Republic of Macedonia and a VMRO-DPMNE candidate in the battle for re-election, also succeeded. Winning just under 56 per cent of the vote in the second round of the election, he defeated his rival Stevo Pendarovski, the candidate of the largest opposition party, the Social Democratic Union […]


Partnership in Afghanistan – Summary of Election Results and a Little Step Forward Towards Democracy

The world waited for over three months for the final results of the presidential elections in Afghanistan. After the second round (held on June 14, 2014) certain consternation appeared in the country, as Abdullah Abdullah, who after the first round of the election won a decisive advantage over Ashraf Ghani, announced that he would not accept any possible defeat. The candidate insisted that Ghani’s victory would be the result of mass forgery. Both the outgoing President Hamid Karzai and the U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry engaged in mediation between the two. Kerry proposed the separation of powers and the creation of a national unity government, in which both candidates […]


The Islamic State – Jihad 2.0

On September 11, 2001, the Western world faced a new threat: global Islamic extremism employing the sophisticated tools of terrorism. The ‘war on Islamic terror’ initiated at that time remains unresolved, and in the foreseeable future the chances of its completion seem unlikely. Over the past few years it is Al-Qaeda that has been perceived as the worst possible ‘incarnation of evil’ in the context of Sunni fundamentalism. No one knew then that a structure far more radical and absolute might appear, compared to which Al-Qaeda seems more predictable in its actions. A group, known until recently as the ‘Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant’ (ISIL), and now renamed […]


An Independent Kurdistan: Still a Dream or an Actual Opportunity?

Another major crisis in Iraq has become a sound reason for raising the issue of a possible declaration of independence of the Kurdistan Region (KR). In the media one comes across petitions of support for Kurdish independence. More important, however, is not the question of whether and when the Kurds would announce independence, but the fact of the conscious building of their strategy in order to be able to declare this independence. In spring 2012 during the Kurdish holiday of Newroz there occurred a similar phenomenon of amplifying the theme of potential “declaring independence by Kurdistan.” Then the action was less spectacular. Taking advantage of another crisis in Iraq, the […]


Serbian acceleration? The priorities of the new government in Belgrade

On April 27, 2014, the Serbian parliament granted a vote of confidence to the new government of Aleksander Vučić, leader of the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS), which had enjoyed an overwhelming victory in the March early elections. 198 deputies voted for the appointment of a new government; 23 were against. It was Aleksander Vučić (the leader of the main party in the coalition government at that time, as well as being the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense) who made the decision to call early elections. He found that, after the start of Serbia’s accession negotiations to the EU (January 2014), stronger public support would be needed for […]



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