Foreign Policy Publications


Maintenance of F-16 through Foreign Military Sales – a dangerous shortcut

The procurement of military equipment and related services in the system of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) might appear to be simple and convenient for those responsible for the maintenance of military equipment and specialized training at various levels of command due to the selective implementation of the Public Procurement Law of January 29, 2004. A lack of reflection in this area, however, may lead to violations of national and EU public procurement principles, ineffective spending of public funds, and a reduction of the logistic capacity and the level of training of the Polish Armed Forces and the potential of the Polish defense industry. FMS vs Public Procurement Law In April […]


Polish air defense system for Aegis Ashore in Redzikowo – a way of reducing the cost of the ‘Wisla’ program

Financial issues are among main difficulties delaying Polish-American inter-governmental negotiations on the purchase of the ‘Wisla’ medium-range air defense system. Unofficial sources say that the offer presented by the American side is almost double the budget designated for all Polish air defense procurement programs (26 billion PLN, including also ‘Narew’ and ‘Poprad’). Incorporating ‘Wisla’ batteries into NATO’s defense architecture (NATO BMD) and in particular its American element, the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) is a potential way of reducing the financial stress of this purchase on Poland’s budget. NATO Ballistic Missile Defense Since the Lisbon Summit (2010) NATO has been building its Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system based on a […]

Reflections on the Common Security and Defence Policy ahead of the EU summit meeting – Europe needs a quality and realistic security strategy

Since the summit meeting in June 2015, the EU has been working to develop of a new internal policy and security strategy, which is to be reviewed at the EU summit meeting planned for June this year, dedicated to the issues of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). This is to respond to the long-term need that the experts have been warning about for a long time now. The 2003 European Security Strategy (ESS) no longer responds to the dramatic changes we have witnessed in the international security environment during the last decade. Analyses and proposals are currently being developed[1], and as we have seen so far, the new concept […]


Montenegro – the next member of NATO?

At the beginning of December 2015, the foreign ministers of NATO member states decided to invite Montenegro to the Alliance. It would be the first expansion of the organization since 2009 when Albania and Croatia become new members. If all the members of NATO agree to the accession of this small Balkan country, its integration would take place at the next summit, which will take place in July 2016 in Warsaw. Montenegro’s path to NATO Montenegro has a population of a little over 600,000 people and is located on the Balkan Peninsula. It declared independence as recently as 2006, and a few months later (November 2006) joined the ‘Partnership for […]


New strategy in the fight against ISIS – What role for Poland?

On January 12 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama, in his final State of the Union address, outlined a more aggressive plan to combat the so-called Islamic State (ISIS). A few days earlier (6 January 2016), President Obama introduced the long-awaited strategy for the fight against ISIS. Meanwhile the Pentagon unveiled its plans for the operations: American soldiers would not be limited officially only to Iraq. U.S. involvement would continue to involve Special Forces and the training of Iraqi troops. However, President Obama urged Congress in his address to agree to the use of regular troops. In addition, sources at the Pentagon admitted that U.S. Special Forces would carry out the […]


Nord Stream II – implications for the EU energy policy

In September 2015, during the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok, representatives of Russia’s Gazprom, along with Western companies E.ON, BASF-Wintershall, Royal Dutch Shell, OMV and Engi, signed an agreement to build a gas pipeline: Nord Stream II. The pipeline would consist of two lines, each with a transport capacity of 27.5 billion cubic meters per year. [1] The planned pipeline will transport Russian gas through the Baltic Sea to the European Union. The project aims to strengthen Russia’s position as a major supplier of energy to EU countries, and brings with it a great deal of economic and geopolitical consequences for Europe. Nord Stream I In Berlin in 2005, representatives […]


Iran’s opening to the world – possible consequences

Western diplomats described the abolition of sanctions against Iran as a ‘diplomatic victory’. In the current situation there is a great possibility for economic rapprochement between Iran and the European Union, and the resulting economic benefits are obvious for the two sides. On the other hand, the victory of diplomacy was also received with a large dose of scepticism, especially in the Middle East and in the Islamic world. In fact, the scale of the implications is difficult to predict at the moment. The strengthened position of Iran is not necessarily a good signal for Israel and Saudi Arabia and its allies. Other countries in the region are also watching […]


COMMENTARY: The diplomatic conflict between Russia and Turkey: a challenge to energy security

On November 24, 2015, the Turkish Air Force shot down a Russian SU-24 bomber. The President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, warned that this incident will bear ‘‘significant consequences’’ on bilateral relations. The conflict between Russia, a major oil and gas supplier to the EU, and Turkey, an important transit country, puts European energy security at risk. The Su-24 shoot-down President Putin denied allegations that the incident took place in Turkish territory. However prior to the shoot down, Russia had violated Turkish airspace on four occasions during the operation in Syria. Turkey warned Russia against such actions on prior occasions, yet intrusions continued. Moreover, Russia has a history of […]



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