Foreign Policy Publications


Towards the NATO Summit in Warsaw

The NATO Summit in Newport, which took place in September 2014, was conducted in the shadow of the Russian military intervention against Ukraine and its increasing assertiveness towards the entire region of Central and Eastern Europe. Then NATO made decisions aimed at adapting itself to the changing security situation, both in the short perspective (e.g. rotational presence of allied forces in the region) and strategic perspective (including earmarking an immediate reaction force – VJTF from the NATO Response Force). These decisions were in line with Poland’s expectations, which called for both the strengthening of the strategic eastern flank of NATO, and significant improvements in the Alliance’s response mechanisms in crisis […]


#IranNuclearDeal – the next stage in the game for the Middle East

After twelve years of tough negotiations, Iran and the states of P5 + 1 group (China, France, Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany) have reached an agreement to limit Iran’s nuclear program for peaceful purposes. In return for Iran’s close cooperation in this matter, the P5 + 1 countries have opted for the gradual elimination of sanctions against Tehran, which have been imposed in recent years by the UN, the United States, and the European Union. The agreement itself is a success for world diplomacy, but it has also caused a degree of controversy. The successful end of negotiations is just the end of the first stage; […]


Implementation of Minsk II

The negotiations completed on February 12, 2015, between the leaders of France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine (the so-called ‘Normandy format’) led to the signing of the Minsk II agreement. They assumed a truce, effective from February 15, the withdrawal of heavy weapons within fourteen days from that date, the establishment of a buffer zone as well as foreign units leaving the territory of Ukraine. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has been observing the implementation of the ceasefire. Kiev also pledged to implement legislation regarding the fixing of systemic issues, and both sides were to exchange prisoners and unlawfully detained, and to establish a mechanism ensuring humanitarian […]


Chinese high-speed railway diplomacy gathers pace

China has once again showed its greater ability to compete with advanced products and technologies on a global scale. Soon the term ‘Made in China’ will not necessarily mean products of dubious quality and low price. Proof of this is the increasing interest in Chinese high-speed trains (gāotiě), the growing demand for which also shows the effectiveness of China’s foreign policy, which actively promotes the country’s economic priorities. China’s so-called “high-speed diplomacy” is gaining momentum. China is the most populous country in a world where railways are the most effective and cost-effective means of transportation. Developing this means of transport may be one of the key conditions for maintaining rapid […]


POLICY PAPER: Election year in Central Asia – new security challenges in the region

2015 was supposed to be important for Central Asia because of the presidential and parliamentary elections. These have already taken place or will take place in four of the five countries of the region (the only exception is Turkmenistan). The situation in the region has changed dramatically with the completion of the ISAF mission and the majority of NATO troops leaving Afghanistan which gives additional importance to the elections. Other factors bringing changes to the region are: progress of the supporters of the so-called Islamic State in Afghanistan and the complicated situation in the former Soviet Union (the Russian-Ukrainian war, which resulted in a serious economic crisis). The authorities of […]

How to effectively transfer technology? Lessons learned for the Ballistic Missile Defense programme from shale gas revolution in Poland

Conclusion of the tender for medium-range Ballistic Missile Defense (‘BMD’, codename “Wisła”) creates both opportunities and challenges for Poland’s defense industry. One of most promising aspect is the transfer of technology and know-how from American providers to local entities. In this respect, important lessons can be learned from the Polish Oil and Gas Sector’s (‘OGS’) shale exploration efforts which share several characteristics with the BMD project. First, both shale OGS and BMD rely on sophisticated, proprietary technology, which make their implementation a capital intensive process. Hence, localization of production is necessary to cut costs, and ensure profitability of investments. Moreover, prior adaptation of regulation and operational procedures is needed to […]


Tallinn Manual 2.0

The 7th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon 2015), hosted by the NATO Cooperation Cyber Defence Center of Excellence (CCDCOE) in Tallinn, Estonia, is approaching at great speed. This year’s topic will be “Architectures in Cyberspace”. 2015 will also be when the second edition of the Tallinn Manual – dubbed “The Tallinn Manual 2.0” – will be published. The first manual, called the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, was published in 2013 after 3 years of research by a group of international experts, most of them coming from the field of international law. The CCDCOE, one of NATO’s Centres of Excellence, invited numerous experts of […]


The civil war in Yemen and the geopolitics of the Middle East Region

The first months of 2015 were full of events that have significantly worsened the already tense Shia-Sunni relations. This state of affairs also indirectly contributed to the further deterioration of relations between Iran, which has been laying claims to being the patron of all Shiites, and Saudi Arabia, which has similar ambitions with regard to the Sunnis. Yemen has been added to the collection of states and regions, such as Syria and Iraq, where Shiite-Sunni (and, indirectly, Iranian-Saudi) rivalry has acquired a character of an open, armed confrontation. A rapid worsening of the political and security situation in Yemen took place in autumn 2014. All this comes at a time when the […]


im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego
ul. Oleandrów 6
00-629 Warszawa
tel.: 022 658 04 01
faks: 022 205 06 35
rada europy
Fundacja im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego posiada status partnerski
Rady Europy.