REPORT: Establishment of the Tribunal on the Aggression of Russia Against Ukraine: Supreme Level of Responsibility to Prevent New Conflicts in Europe
On February 24, 2022, Russia extended its armed aggression against Ukraine, unleashed in 2014 with the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and with the temporary occupation of certain areas of Donetsk and Luhansk regions.
PULASKI REPORT: What can Poland learn from the United Kingdom in its approach to naval development planning?
The maritime environment has invariably remained a key facilitator in all kinds of globalisation processes for hundreds of years. Humanity has entered a new level of development of socio-cultural, economic, political and military relations because of the possibility of efficient use of waterways. Even now, when it would seem that modern technologies would have significantly reduced the importance of the maritime environment, it turns out that mankind continues to rely on the seas and oceans for political, military as well as economic issues. In 2020, almost 90% of all global trade products (by volume) were transported by water. These products also accounted for as much as 70% of the total […]
REPORT: One Team, One Playground, Various Players. Maritime Security Approaches of European NATO Members
NATO was founded as an organisation bringing together twelve countries, eleven of which had direct access to the sea, most of which being strongly sea-oriented. This maritime orientation is, with the North Atlantic as its geographical centre, also reflected in the alliance’s name (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation). However, over time (mainly after the end of the Cold War), its structure has changed significantly with the welcoming of numerous countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Still, not least due to its transatlantic nature, large parts of the Alliance’s activities remain focused on the maritime domain. The motivation standing behind this study is to demonstrate how diverse the NATO landscape is in […]
Dear Readers, We, the representatives of the Casimir Pulaski Foundation, the Antall József Knowledge Centre, EUROPEUM Institute for European Policy and the Slovak Security Policy Institute; have the privilege of presenting to you a special report, wtitten by sixteen senior defence experts and entitled “The V4 towards a new NATO Strategic Concept and the EU Strategic Compass”. The document is a summaryof a broader project entitled: “Returning to the roots of the Visegrad cooperation – coordinating V4 strategy towards NATO Strategic Concept and European defence autonomy” that is supported by the International Visegrad Fund. The project is aimed at supporting the coordination of the V4 group’s stance on works over […]
PULASKI REPORT: The Real Financial Cost of Nord Stream 2 – Economic Sensitivity Analysis of the Alternatives to the Offshore Pipeline
In any economic analysis of Nord Stream 2 the first question to be considered is the actual cost of the project. Over the last couple of years, a variety of publications have provided widely differing cost projections. The recent data suggest that Nord Stream 2 capital investment will reach €9,5-10 billion. Yet, the €9,5-10 billion is not the final construction cost of the project. Nord Stream 2 will not fulfil its function in isolation. Without additional distribution gas pipelines on both Russian and European sides, on its own, Nord Stream 2 will only be a pipe leading from nowhere to nowhere. This means that a sufficient pipeline capacity needs to […]
According to the National Security Strategy (NSS) of the Trump administration published in December 2017, today’s world is getting more competitive. The US and its allies are facing growing political, economic, and military competitions around the world. Two revisionist states, China and Russia, are challenging US prosperity and superiority as well as the liberal international order. The NSS also pointed out that strong relationships with allies are invaluable in order for the US to magnify its power and respond to the growing political, economic, and military competitions. As shown in the NSS, US allies in Asia and Europe are facing similar threats, namely, the emergences of two revisionist states. The […]
For almost two years the European Commission and a group of most influential Member States (such as France, Germany and Italy) have been pushing the development of new initiatives in area of defense. The presentation of the Global Strategy of the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy in June 2016 marked a major milestone in this area. The document includes several provisions regarding the need to strengthen Europe’s security and specifies EU’s role in the process. A number of later events amplified the tendency towards building some sort of a European defense union. Among them, the most important ones include the Brexit referendum, the aggressive actions of the Russian Federation […]
On July 11 and 12 the North Atlantic Council meeting was held, on the Head of States and Governments level. It has been the third summit since illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia and its support of separatists in Eastern Ukraine, what caused a rise in tensions between NATO and Russia. That in turn has shown the need for implementing new defense and deterrence measures to reassure the countries located on the Alliance’s Eastern Flank. The Brussels Summit seems to a higher extent that the two previous summits – which focused on rapid common response to Russian actions – concentrate on adoption of long-term solutions aimed at enhancing NATO capabilities […]