PULASKI REPORT: The Real Financial Cost of Nord Stream 2 – Economic Sensitivity Analysis of the Alternatives to the Offshore Pipeline
In any economic analysis of Nord Stream 2 the first question to be considered is the actual cost of the project. Over the last couple of years, a variety of publications have provided widely differing cost projections. The recent data suggest that Nord Stream 2 capital investment will reach €9,5-10 billion. Yet, the €9,5-10 billion is not the final construction cost of the project. Nord Stream 2 will not fulfil its function in isolation. Without additional distribution gas pipelines on both Russian and European sides, on its own, Nord Stream 2 will only be a pipe leading from nowhere to nowhere. This means that a sufficient pipeline capacity needs to […]
According to the National Security Strategy (NSS) of the Trump administration published in December 2017, today’s world is getting more competitive. The US and its allies are facing growing political, economic, and military competitions around the world. Two revisionist states, China and Russia, are challenging US prosperity and superiority as well as the liberal international order. The NSS also pointed out that strong relationships with allies are invaluable in order for the US to magnify its power and respond to the growing political, economic, and military competitions. As shown in the NSS, US allies in Asia and Europe are facing similar threats, namely, the emergences of two revisionist states. The […]
For almost two years the European Commission and a group of most influential Member States (such as France, Germany and Italy) have been pushing the development of new initiatives in area of defense. The presentation of the Global Strategy of the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy in June 2016 marked a major milestone in this area. The document includes several provisions regarding the need to strengthen Europe’s security and specifies EU’s role in the process. A number of later events amplified the tendency towards building some sort of a European defense union. Among them, the most important ones include the Brexit referendum, the aggressive actions of the Russian Federation […]
On July 11 and 12 the North Atlantic Council meeting was held, on the Head of States and Governments level. It has been the third summit since illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia and its support of separatists in Eastern Ukraine, what caused a rise in tensions between NATO and Russia. That in turn has shown the need for implementing new defense and deterrence measures to reassure the countries located on the Alliance’s Eastern Flank. The Brussels Summit seems to a higher extent that the two previous summits – which focused on rapid common response to Russian actions – concentrate on adoption of long-term solutions aimed at enhancing NATO capabilities […]
Challenges and perspectives for EU response to conflicts in the European neighborhood – time for a new strategy?
The Casimir Pulaski Foundation, in partnership with the European Institute of Peace, held a seminar inaugurating the Peace and Stabilisation Strategies Programme, hosted by the Permanent Representation of the Republic of Poland to the European Union in Brussels on the 18th of May, 2016. The theme was, “Challenges and perspectives for EU response to conflicts in the European neighborhood – time for a new strategy.” Seminar panelists discussed the obstacles and possible new strategies for EU in conflict resolution and stabilisation. A series of themes emerged from panelist discussions, including prioritizing and adapting current EU policies and actions, the scope for increased flexibility in intervention policies, the current dearth of […]
Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile technologies is a growing threat to NATO member states, their territories and citizens. Although the number of nuclear warheads around the world decreases, states’ nuclear capabilities continue to expand with development of ever-more precise delivery systems. Approximately 30 states around the World, including Iran and North Korea, possess or strive to acquire advanced missile technologies. Growing tensions between NATO and Russia challenge the air defence capabilities of the alliance’s eastern flank. By implementing A2AD strategies, Russia puts in question NATO’s capacity to come to aid and assistance of threatened members. Although the Alliance declares that the aim of a NATO Missile Defence […]