European defense programs, NATO adaptation to the Russian threat and balance sheet of U.S. Allies – new reports presented at Warsaw Security Forum 2018
At the Warsaw Security Forum 2018 the Casimir Pulaski Foundation presented three new reports: „European offensive in defense sphere – EDF, PESCO and CARD”, „From Newport to Brussels – NATO adaptation to the Russian threat” and „Balance Sheet of U.S. Allies and Implication for Alliance Policy”. All reports are available on the Pulaski Foundations websites.
„European offensive in defense sphere – EDF, PESCO and CARD” report is an analysis of three programs (EDF, PESCO and CARD) of the new EU defense package. Since the initiatives that are now coming into force are closely related, they should undergo joint assessment. The report indicates the connection between the European Defense Fund, Permanent Structural Cooperation and the Coordinated Annual Review on Defense. Success or failure of any one of them will have a severe impact on the functioning of the others. This in turn affects the chances of creating a European defense union, which currently seems to be within reach. Failure to take advantage of the existing opportunity might plunge EU’s common defense initiative back into a period of lethargy, which it emerged from not too long ago.
Report “From Newport to Brussels – NATO adaptation to the Russian threat” focuses on the North Atlantic Council meeting on the level of Head of States and Governments, held on 11-12 July. It has been the third summit since illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia and its support of separatists in Eastern Ukraine, what caused a rise in tensions between NATO and Russia. That in turn has shown the need for implementing new defense and deterrence measures to reassure the countries located on the Alliance’s Eastern Flank. The Brussels Summit seems to a higher extent that the two previous summits – which focused on rapid common response to Russian actions – concentrate on adoption of long-term solutions aimed at enhancing NATO capabilities in collective defense. In spite of tensions caused by White House policies under President Donald Trump, who continuous to pressure the European allies to increase defense spending, bringing many questions concerning the future of Transatlantic relations, it seems that the summit – at least in military dimension – achieved its goals and the processes related to NATO adaptation are moving ahead.
The third report “Balance Sheet of U.S. Allies and Implication for Alliance Policy” is related in particular to Transatlantic relations between US and its allies. According to the National Security Strategy (NSS) of the Trump administration published in December 2017, today’s world is getting more competitive. The US and its allies are facing growing political, economic, and military competitions around the world. Two revisionist states, China and Russia, are challenging US prosperity and superiority as well as the liberal international order. The NSS also pointed out that strong relationships with allies are invaluable in order for the US to magnify its power and respond to the growing political, economic, and military competitions. For the allies to determine the contribution that they need to make, it is essential to make a comparative study and underline the full spectrum of “assets” and “liabilities”, or the “balance sheet” that indicates the value of the ally to the US. The report, by examining the assets that Japan, Poland and other allies can bring to the alliance, shows their overall strategic importance to the US. Conversely, it is necessary to examine areas in which each ally may be underperforming and could contribute more to the allied defenses. Through this process, a systematic appreciation, or balance sheet of each ally’s assets and liabilities can be drawn up from which US allies can assess its ability to meet the anticipated demands that will be placed upon it by Washington in the future.
Links to the reports:
„European offensive in defense sphere – EDF, PESCO and CARD” – download here
„From Newport to Brussels – NATO adaptation to the Russian threat” – download here
„Balance Sheet of U.S. Allies and Implication for Alliance Policy” – download here