War in Ukraine – weekly update (18.03-24.03.2023)

Frontline Report The Russian offensive in Bakhmut has slowed down, with a record low of daily combat clashes recorded this week. This does not mean however, that the situation in the city has changed for the better. Russian forces continue to assault Bakhmut from several directions. In the north Wagner troops gradually advance through the metalworks and the industrial district. At the same time from the east Moscow’s soldiers continue to besiege the Ukrainian defensive lines located on the west bank of Bakhmutka river, with several assaults managing to secure small beachheads. These breakthroughs are instantaneously counter attacked by Ukrainians, in many cases successfully, however such operations only increase Ukrainian […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Europe’s Hydrogen Strategy Failure. Negligible chances for extensive production of cost-effective green hydrogen in Europe (Piotr Przybyło)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 16, March 24, 2023 Introduction Following the invasion of Ukraine by Russia, the impetus for a rapid clean energy transition has never been stronger. This position was confirmed by the European Commission’s (EC) REPowerEU initiative, a plan to phase out Europe’s dependence on fossil fuels before 2030 and to increase the resilience of the EU energy system. The plan confirmed the commitment to achieve the European Green Deal’s long-term goal of making the EU climate-neutral by 2050 and to implement the Fit for 55 package presented in July 2021. Delivering on these objectives will require the EU to develop, implement and scale up innovative renewable energy […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The Reason Behind Destabilisation of Moldova (Ihor Havrylyuk)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 15, March 22, 2023 The Republic of Moldova has received a significant amount of international media and experts’ attention in the past two months. The primary reason is the fear that Russian aggression against Ukraine might spill over into the republic to prevent it from drifting into the West. It is crucial to understand the scale of threats posed to Moldova by the Kremlin’s different scenarios as well as implications for the security situation in Ukraine. Factors that facilitate Kremlin’s hybrid war against Moldova Among all post-Soviet republics traditionally deemed by Russia as “near abroad,” Moldova is probably one of the most susceptible to Russian malign […]

War in Ukraine – weekly update (13.03-17.03.2023)

War in Ukraine – weekly update (11.03-17.03.2023) Frontline Report Despite the Russian assault Ukrainian forces continue to hold Bakhmut. Col. General Oleksandr Syrskyi stated that the situation in and around Bakhmut remains difficult, with Russian forces attacking from several directions simultaneously. The commitment to holding Bakhmut has once again been questioned, with US Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin claiming that the city has no strategic value, and its stubborn defence only bleeds Ukrainian forces.[i] US officials have further tried to shift the focus of Ukrainian command from the defence of Bakhmut to a potential spring offensive, that would utilise the newly delivered western equipment to break though Russian lines. US officials […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: France new approach in Africa in the context of Russian hybrid operations (Witold Repetowicz)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 14, March 17, 2023 Partnership and solidarity instead of Francafrique On 27th of February President Emmanuel Macron announced a new approach in French policy on Africa, stressing an end of Francafrique. The new policy would be based on the logic of partnership and solidarity instead of logic of interventionism, aid and protectionism. Importantly, it means that France is going to withdraw its troops from combat missions in Africa, particularly from the restive Sahel region. They are supposed to be replaced by local troops and France instead will focus on contribution to military education in the region. Saying that Macron rejected the idea that France may compete […]

EXPERT’S COMMENTARY: The West needs a communication strategy about the war in Ukraine (Miłosz J. Cordes)

One year into Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the West is in need for a diversified strategy when discussing the conflict with its partners. Due to historical experiences, non-European and non-Western countries look at the Russian aggression differently. Supporting Ukraine thus means learning how communicate the consequences of the ongoing invasion in a language that would take into account addressees’ sensitivity. Such language is essential to assist Kyiv in winning the war and embarking on a path of successful and quick recovery. Introduction In a recent Pulaski Commentary, Sebastian Czub summarised Vladimir Putin’s address to the Federal Assembly, delivered on February 21st.[i] One can argue that the speech, apart from […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Iran-Saudi Arabia agreement: what it might mean for the Middle East (Robert Czulda)

A surprising decision to re-establish diplomatic ties between two arch-rivals – the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – could potentially alter a security landscape in the Middle East. However, significant challenges remain, and they will ultimately determine a fate of the agreement. Their deep and structural nature makes it difficult to be optimistic. If any bilateral relations decisively influence a situation in the Middle East, undoubtedly they are those between Saudi Arabia and Iran – two regional powers whose interests extend far beyond their own borders. Both states pursue an active policy in the region, seeking to increase their influence. Mutual animosities between these states […]

War in Ukraine – weekly update (6.03-10.03.2023)

War in Ukraine – weekly update (04.03-10.03.2023)   Frontline Report In Bakhmut Russian forces continue to press Ukrainian lines and the situation remains very difficult, despite that Ukrainian command has officially declared that the defence of the city will continue.[i] Several western experts have doubted the importance of Bakhmut, stating that the city has little to no strategic value, while at the same time draining Ukrainian forces.[ii] Commander of Ukraine’s Ground Forces, Col. General Oleksandr Syrskyi stated that the importance of Bakhmut is increasing as each day the city holds it allows Ukraine to prepare reserves and prepare for future offensive operations while at the same time bleeding Russian forces.[iii] […]

EXPERT’S COMMENTARY: Is the ruling party’s name the only element remaining of Georgia’s European and transatlantic dreams? (Robert Pszczel)

I was very excited about the invitation from the Polish Embassy in Tbilisi to attend a special conference in Georgia to mark the tragic anniversary of the new, full-size invasion of Ukraine by Russia. The gathering on 24 February, hosted by the respected Rondeli Foundation (the Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies) and supported by the Ukrainian Embassy, turned out to be well-attended event, bringing together diplomats, experts and media. Even Georgian President, Salome Zourabichvili, made a brief appearance. Debates reflected strong unity of views on the international consequences of the war and confrontation started by the Putin regime. This palpable sense of solidarity with Ukrainians was not only […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Deliveries of Western aircraft for Ukraine – potential challenges and options (Robert Czulda)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 13, March 10, 2023 Ukraine is pressing its international partners to begin delivering multirole aircraft. Although such discussions have been ongoing for some time and some MiG-29s were reportedly handed over by Poland, this plan – at least when it comes to Western aircraft – remains unlikely. There is a lack of political will, and concerns related to such move cannot be ignored. Nonetheless, NATO and EU member states still have several options to support Ukraine’s aviation. According to Kyiv, there is a need for at least 200 multirole aircraft. [1] It is an undeniable fact that new aircraft would support Ukraine’s aerial capabilities, which are […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: The Baltic Resolve: Estonia’s 2023 Parliamentary Election, its consequences, and the influence on the war in Ukraine (Sebastian Czub)

The 2023 Estonian Parliamentary Elections have come to an end. Victory was claimed by the Reform Party, under the leadership of current Prime Minister Kaja Kallas. The ruling party scored 31.2%  of all votes, thus securing 37 out 101 seats of the Estonian parliament.[i] The second place went to the Conservative People’s Party of Estonia (EKRE), with 16.1%  of votes and 17 seats. The third largest group in the new parliament will be the Estonian Centre Party, which managed to secure 15.3%  of votes and 16 seats. The most surprising result however is the rise of Estonia 200,  with an astounding 13.3%  of votes and 13 seats. In the 2019 […]

War in Ukraine – weekly update (25.02-03.03.2023)

Frontline report – Bakhmut focus The battle for Bakhmut seems to be entering its final stages. Over the last week the Russian forces launched a large coordinated offensive along the entire line of contact in the region. The attack was facilitated by a large-scale bombardment of the entire city and the key towns surrounding it. The Russians used standard shell artillery, rocket artillery, as well as aircraft and even the highly valuable and destructive TOS-1 heavy flamethrower systems which launch salvos of thermobaric rockets. The barrage suppressed and destroyed Ukrainian positions, through which Russian assault groups broke through. At the same time Russian forces launched simultaneous assault along the entire […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Disinformation – why it (often) works and why this can impact our security? (Robert Pszczel)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 12, March 01, 2023 All societies, countries, organisations, and private individuals functioning in public information space are confronted with the challenge of disinformation. The term originating in Russian language (dezinformatsiya[1] is defined by NATO as “the deliberate creation and dissemination of false and/or manipulated information with the intent to deceive and/or mislead.”[2] It hampers an honest and transparent debate, twists/distorts the facts which are the basis for rational deliberation and decision-making. The offensive goal of disinformation is obvious – to gain advantage over your opponent/competitor through dishonest means of lies, half-truths, deception and psychological manipulation.[3] In the case of authoritarian regimes its purpose can also be […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Poland and the advocacy for a wider Central and Eastern Europe (Miłosz J. Cordes)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 11, February 28, 2023 The Russian invasion of Ukraine has brought an unprecedented chance to end the existence of harmful stereotype of Central and Eastern Europe as a region where the Kremlin has special interests. It has cost a lot of political efforts to bring Czechia, Poland, or the Baltic states out of this equation and join the Western institutional framework. Now there is enough momentum for doing the same with Ukraine and, perhaps, Moldova. Although it will require a lot of efforts related to fighting corruption, strengthening rule of law, and bringing foreign investments, a positive outcome is plausible. Poland’s experience and close relations with […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Poland’s military modernisation – still many challenges ahead (Robert Czulda)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 10, February 27, 2023 Poland’s military procurements, resulting from the growing threat from Russia, are unprecedented in their scale. They provide not only opportunities – Poland can significantly boost its combat capabilities and thus its position within NATO – but also generate serious challenges which cannot be underestimated. Many questions remain unanswered. Major assumptions for the development of the Polish Armed Forces were included in the classified document entitled “Development Program of the Armed Forces for 2021-2035” (Program Rozwoju Sił Zbrojnych na lata 2021-2035), which was adopted in the second half of 2019, as well as in its derivative “Technical Modernization Plan for 2021-2035” (PMT, Plan […]

War in Ukraine – weekly update (20-24.02.2023)

Ukraine Frontline Update In most important frontline news from this week, Ukrainian forces carried out a missile attack against several key Russian targets, including far behind the frontlines such as occupied Mariupol.[i]  The strike against Mariupol is particularly important, as the Russian command believed that the city was too far to be targeted by Ukrainian weapon systems. The city serves as a major logistics hub and garrison for Russian forces in southern Ukraine, including Russian air assets. It is speculated that more advanced HIMARS munitions were used in the attack. Kreminna – Lyman Area Russian forces continue offensive operations in Donetsk, Luhansk, and Kharkiv Oblasts however, without any major strategic […]

CPF&ICUV: one year of advocating together for Ukrainian Victory

The start of the Russian aggression on 24th February 2022 has radically redrawn the contours of international security. As Europeans, we are not only defending our territories, we are also protecting democratic values and human rights. Today, we would like to summarize what we did in the last 12 months to sustain the Ukrainian Victory. The most significant aid that we gave includes: Delivering over 500 sets of medical and protective gear to Kyiv in the first days of war, Hosting 20 Ukrainian activists and their families in Warsaw, Assisting in the creation and development of the International Center of Ukrainian Victory, Fundrasing over 1 million euros for advocacy activities […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Rousing the War Industry in Ukraine (Sebastian Czub)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 9, February 22, 2023 In a recent development a number of senior UK defence industry officials arrived in Kyiv to discuss plans for a joint venture between the two countries. The aim of this venture is to establish industry in Ukraine capable of manufacturing UK licensed vehicles and armaments. The establishment of industry cooperation between the UK and Ukraine would be a major step in the relations between the two countries, boosting Ukrainian ability to supply their forces as well as fill the growing gaps in UK’s own armed forces. There are however many factors that influence the talks between Ukraine and the UK, and their […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Putin’s Speech to the Russian Parliament (Sebastian Czub)

Threats, Blame, and Excuses Putin’s speech has been an excruciatingly long ordeal, and one that started with aggressive yet somewhat reused statements. The first key point brought forward was a reaffirmation of Russian commitment to the “Special Military Operation” in Ukraine. No changes to the character of the operation have been introduced, nor has any de-escalation been announced – it might be observed that quite the opposite thing happened. The speech was poised to stoke the fires of war in Russia, aimed to rouse and rally the Russian population behind the war banners. Putin attempted to demonise  the West and Ukraine by providing an extensive list and vivid descriptions of […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Putin’s Speech. De-escalation or Formal Declaration of War? (Sebastian Czub)

The legal and organisational nature of the “Special Military Operation” has always been rather unclear. Neither an outright war nor a counter terrorist operation so common in Russia, it didn’t fit into the pre-existing legal statutes of the Russian Federation. Several anonymous informers from the Russian Department of Internal Affairs have reported to the Moscow Times that President Putin will announce the change of the “Special Military Operation” into a counter terrorist operation. Such a sudden change would have a number of consequences for the ongoing war in Ukraine, with some of Moscow Times informers claiming that it could lead to a de escalation of the conflict.[i] Russian counter terrorism […]

Warsaw Security Forum partnered Munich Security Conference 2023

Biden’s visit in Kyiv and Warsaw proves that the region’s voice in shaping response to Russia is rising. We conveyed the same message in Munich through organising a high-level dinner with key policy-makers entitled Breaking the vicious circle: Mapping views on the exit strategy for post-Putin Russia.

War in Ukraine – weekly update (13-19.02.2023)

Ukraine Frontline Update This week’s missile strikes have seen Ukrainian air defences at a record low, failing to shoot down the majority of Russian ordnance. Russian forces continue offensive operations in the Donetsk, Luhansk, and Kharkiv Oblasts, however without any major strategic gains. On the eastern border of Kharkiv Oblast, Russian troops push towards Kupyansk and Dvorichna, securing minimal gains. Russians are advancing from Kreminna towards Lyman, located around 25-30 km northeast of the strategically important city of Slovyansk. Ukrainian Eastern Group of Forces spokesperson Colonel Serhii Cherevaty noted that Russian forces conducted a record number of artillery strikes in this region, serving to support ongoing offensive operations. It was […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: One year of Russia’s war against Ukraine: Ukrainians fighting for survival, the West adapting its strategy, centres of gravity shifting.(Robert Pszczel)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 8, February 18, 2023 Most of us remember vividly the 11th September, 2001 – it was the day that changed many peoples’ lives and forced countries and international institutions to adapt their way of life, their priorities and strategies. While the scourge of terrorism is by no means eradicated, the start of the Russian aggression on 24th February 2023 has redrawn the contours and altered the substance of international security even more fundamentally. It is a truly transformational conflict, with long-term consequences. Confrontation imposed on us by Russia – but we have to win it The war is waged by an autocratic regime feeding a myth […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY War and peace – a case for a new Russia policy (Bartłomiej Kot)

The war in Ukraine has already proven that Russia is not a credible partner. Its defeat has the full potential of becoming one of the most profitable processes for the rules-based international order, our security, and economy since 1991. To make it happen we shall however establish a completely new and broad Russia policy, by eliminating the mistakes of the past and boldly looking forward, with CEE actors playing an active part in this process. This new strategy should be based on defining the ultimate goal of the ongoing confrontation with the Kremlin as a long-lasting peace and security for the whole CEE, not only for Ukraine. The prerequisites of […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Africa in the face of the invasion of Ukraine and the changing geopolitical order (Dominika Kulig)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 7, February 16, 2023 It will soon be a year since Russia invaded Ukraine. Since February 24, 2022, the question of the position of African states on this conflict remains suspended in space. It usually falls on the margins of Western debates, and when the issue is being raised the conclusions are (full of disapproval) diagnosis about the non-solidary character of Africa’s behaviour.[i] This belief was influenced especially by the vote at the United Nations forum concerning the condemnation of  Russia’s aggression against Ukraine. In the first such vote, which took place in March 2022, only 28 out of 54 African countries supported the resolution, 17 […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Sweden and Finland in NATO: a major boost to Central-Eastern Europe (Robert Czulda)

Although both Sweden and Finland cannot be considered as significant military powers, their full membership in the Alliance will significantly improve NATO’s strategic position vis-à-vis Russia, particularly in its Eastern and Northern dimension. Both Sweden and Finland were invited to join NATO at the Madrid Summit in June 2022. Their official bids clearly demonstrate not only significant changes in the European security architecture, but they also show that the Russian narrative is deeply false. It is not NATO that has been causing destabilisation in Europe and using an artificial Russophobic narrative to increase divisions. It is the opposite – Russia is perceived as a threat and a trouble-maker not only […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Europe’s Double Standards In Securing LNG Shipments. Can LNG Replace Russian Gas as a Source of Energy for Europe? (Piotr Przybyło)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 5, February 08, 2023 Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel; its CO2 emissions are about half of that of coal and just one-third of brown coal emissions. Replacing coal with gas reduces total emissions by hundreds of millions of tonnes annually in Europe. Consequently, natural gas is widely used for heating, cooling, electricity generation, creating indispensable materials (such as steel and concrete), and more. This source of energy currently represents around a quarter of the EU’s overall energy consumption. About 26% of that gas is used in the power generation sector (including in combined heat and power plants), and around 23% in industry. The remaining […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY Perfect Ally For the Darkest of Hours? (Bartłomiej Kot)

The United Kingdom is a perfect match for Ukraine for conducting wartime advocacy. Britain needs to project its image as a country with a global impact and has a long track of understanding the Russian threat to security. Zelenskyy – with his Churchillian narrative – will not save Tories from a likely defeat in the next general elections. He can however help some of them to build a legacy for being on the right side of history. Despite that, British support for the Ukrainian cause should be perceived as absolutely bipartisan. The unexpected visit of Volodymyr Zelenskyy to the Western European capitals started on Wednesday, February 8th, with a set […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Bulgaria as a breeding ground for Russia’s influence in the Balkans

Pulaski Policy Paper no 5, February 08, 2023 The Balkans, historically known as a region of great powers’ clashing interests, have seen a new wave of political instability in the past year. Hotspots include: tensions on Kosovo-Serbian border, government crisis in Montenegro and Bulgaria and, lastly, the long lasting institutional deadlock in Bosnia and Herzegovina that could cause a new outbreak of violence. Traditionally, domestic politics in the region are characterised by prevailing corruption and weak democratic institutions, which makes states highly susceptible for external influence of malign actors. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has affected the Balkans both politically and economically and the region has proved to be one […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Japan’s new defence strategy: a final deviation from pacifist post-WWII self-defence policy? (Robert Czulda)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 4, February 06, 2023 Recently Tokyo announced three key security-related documents, which – if implemented – would deeply change Japan’s military capabilities and its position in a geostrategic landscape of Asia. Japanese decisions to boost its warfighting capabilities is a direct result of increasing militarisation by two Japan’s potential adversaries: China and North Korea. It is also a reaction to a highly aggressive policy of Russia, with which Japan has never signed a peace treaty and has unresolved territorial disputes. In mid-December 2022 the government of Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, who said that Japan was now at a “turning point in history”,[1] released a new National […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The Winter Assault – Russian and Ukrainian approaches to war in late winter 2022/23 (Sebastian Czub)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 3, February 02, 2023 It has been eleven months since the start of the Russian large-scale invasion of Ukraine. The almost year long period of open warfare has taken its toll on the armed forces of both sides. Many military experts believe that the harsh winter conditions would halt the majority, if not all, offensive operations and serve as a moment of respite, recuperation and reinforcement. However, the uniqueness of the Ukrainian battlefield and the approach of command staff of both sides, point to the conclusion that late winter 2023 will bear witness to key battles and offensives. The influence of winter on Ukrainian battlefield After […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Why Russia’s propaganda narratives matter – selected trends and implications (Viliyan Tsvetanov)

Overview Since the beginning of the Russian invasion on February 24, 2022, Ukraine’s resistance has produced several stunning reversals in the fortunes of war, drastically limiting the territorial and political gains of its adversary. Defeats such as the one in Kherson have forced Moscow to reevaluate its military approach on more than one occasion. However, they have also necessitated an important set of domestic adaptations aimed at ensuring stability in the absence of clear military victory. Such adjustments are evident in one of the Kremlin’s key supporting pillars, namely its propaganda. Examining some of these narrative changes can provide insights into the evolution of the Kremlin’s thinking, its concerns, and […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Foreign Volunteers Returning From Ukraine: What’s Next Introduction (Kacper Rękawek)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 2, February 01, 2023 In March 2022 the Ukrainian government estimated that up to 20 000 individuals applied to join that country’s “International Legion.”[1] Although this number was later seen to have been wildly exaggerated, potentially around a tenth of the volunteers either enlisted in the Legion or fought with other Ukrainian units in the Russo-Ukrainian war after 24 February 2022. The presence of these foreign volunteers on the frontlines (and not foreign fighters as these individuals are fighting for governmental and not rebel forces) and their returns home pose a challenge to the governments of their countries of origin.  (Lack Of) Policy On Returning Foreign Volunteers: […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Presidential elections in the Czech Republic – potential implications for the country, EU and NATO (Ihor Havrylyuk)

In the second round of Czech’s presidential elections held on January 27-28, retired army general Petr Pavel expectedly won over ex-prime minister Andrej Babiš. In the run-off 58,32% of the voters supported Pavel, while Babiš won 41,67% of the ballot.[i] The turnout was one of the highest since elections became direct and hit the level of 70,25%. Among the central topics of the 2023 presidential elections was the Russian aggression against Ukraine. The president’s role in the political system of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic, where the role of the president is primarily ceremonial. Nonetheless, the head of state exercises a certain degree of […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Ukraine in the German Foreign Policy: old problems and new challenges (Lidia Gibadło)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 1, January 25, 2023 The 24th February marks a turning point in many areas of German politics. Eastern policy is one of the key ones. Although in this area the most discussed aspect is the attitude towards Russia, it is vital to recognise the evolutionary approach towards Ukraine. Today Ukraine is perceived not only as a key element in concluding a peace agreement: its success will be vital for stabilisation in the EU’s eastern neighbourhood. In the post-war perspective, Ukraine may be a new investment destination for German business, especially in energy and infrastructure. Approach towards Ukraine before the 24 February Before the war, Ukraine was […]

Poland as depicted in Russian Federation’s official communication in the first months of the war in Ukraine (February 24th-July 2022)

Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24th February, 2022 Poland has become a new frontline state and the most important hub of military, economic and humanitarian aid for Ukraine.  Poland has been also one of the leaders of a hawkish foreign policy towards Russia, actively encouraging its Western allies and institutions to boost up military assistance to Ukraine as well as to increase the magnitude of sanctions against the Russian Federation. This activism has not gone unnoticed by the Kremlin and has had immediate effects on how Poland began to be depicted by Russian state media and governmental officials. This paper looks at the messaging about Poland, as  presented […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Potential deliveries of Western heavy vehicles to Ukraine are not sufficient (Robert Czulda)

Three Western NATO member states – France, the United States and Germany – promised to provide Ukraine with some heavy fighting vehicles. Although, on the one hand, this is good news – after all, a certain mental barrier is broken and a new supply channel is to be established – from a purely military perspective, this is rather a symbolic help. It is worth reminding that in late 2022 Ukraine asked for at least 300 main battle tanks (MBTs) and between 600-700 armoured infantry fighting vehicles (AIFVs).[1] Kyiv’s open request was made after the Ukrainian Army was supplied by several states in Central and Eastern Europe with large quantities of […]

EXPERT’S COMMENTARY: Central Europe and danger of the middle security trap (Miłosz J. Cordes)

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has uncovered serious shortcomings when it comes to a broader understanding of security among most Central European countries and their governments. Almost a year after the war began, it becomes increasingly visible that the membership in NATO cannot remain the sole fundament of the region’s well-being in the world of increasing geopolitical tensions, recomposing security environment and growing soft-security threats, such as climate change and data processing and disruption of global supply chains. Mesmerised by the West Ever since 2004/2005, when many Central European (CE) politicians stood side by side with protesters in Kyiv during the Orange Revolution, the understanding of a need for a cohesive […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Qatar’s political gains after the 2022 World Cup (Robert Czulda)

The State of Qatar’s decision to host the biggest and most popular sporting event in the world – the World Cup – was not driven by its love to sport and football, but purely by political calculations. For Qatar sport is an important element of building its influence and strengthening its soft power. Despite some controversies, Qatar has demonstrated great organizational skills and benefited from the tournament politically. Qatar has made a very long, yet successful journey from being a relatively unknown member of the international community to one of the most important and influential actors in contemporary global politics and business. To achieve this, Qatar used a wide array […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The Baltic Route: key to Ukraine’s future and global food stability (Miłosz J. Cordes)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 29, December 20 2022 9 months into the invasion, the Grain from Ukraine summit took place in Kyiv. Western leaders gathered there, while commemorating the victims of Holodomor, have finally acknowledged the need for secure and reliable transport schemes to and from Ukraine. It is time for decision-makers in Kyiv, Warsaw and Brussels to turn their eyes to strategic opportunities offered by the Baltic Sea and combine their financial and political efforts to allow for selling Ukrainian grain overseas as it can prevent major ruptures in Africa and the Middle East. Closure of the Black Sea gateway Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has turned from blitzkrieg to […]

PULASKI REPORT: Capabilities to replenish losses of Ukrainian armoured forces

Ukraine’s Armed Forces have been battling the Russian invasion on land, at sea, in the air and in cyberspace since February 24 2022. Despite the disparity of forces that is obvious to all analysts, Ukraine did not collapse in the first weeks of the war, and over time has even been tempted to regain some of the territories lost in the initial phases of the conflict. Contrary to the theories trending at one time – and in some places even today – about the end of the tank as an effective tool of war, armoured weapons play a substantial role on both sides on the Ukrainian front, second only to […]

PULASKI COMMENTARY: Climate crisis, food insecurity and (not so) shared values – what can we expect from U.S.-African Leaders Summit 2022? (Dominika Kulig)

On December 13-15, Washington DC expects 50 delegations (49 from African countries and 1 from the African Union) to come together to discuss the future of economic relations and development. This is the second such summit in this framework, as the first was held in 2014 on the initiative of Barack Obama. In the following years, especially during the presidency of Donald Trump, this idea descended to the background, and the positive effects of the first meeting were not visible. Recently, however, one can see a shift in the direction of American foreign policy – this year’s summit is described as one of the most important events of the upcoming […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: Russian Approach to Siege Warfare in practice: Kyiv vs Mariupol (Sebastian Czub)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 28, December 6 2022 Lesson from Ukraine: Russian Approach to Siege Warfare It has been nine months since the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. During this time an unprecedented number of battles and engagements could have been observed. There is however a certain type of warfare that attracts much more attention than others – both from the parties engaged in the conflict as well as the general public. Siege warfare. The news reports and footage from besieged Ukrainian cities of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Kherson and most prominently Mariupol, have deeply embedded themselves into the collective psyche of not only Ukrainians but Europeans as well. With scenes […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The shift in Germany’s Ostpolitik: Implications of new energy policy for the European Union? (Tamar Tkemaladze)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 27, November 28 2022 Overview The explosion of Nord Stream gas pipelines became a breaking point in the energy war between Russia and Europe. Handling Nord Stream as a commercial project rather than the Kremlin’s geopolitical tool, Germany’s energy policy lived on as a double-edged sword, which sharpened in today’s European energy crisis. Following the suspension of gas flows in summer 2022 by Gazprom, the sudden massive drop in pressure of the pipeline came as the conclusive signal of the shift, ending Germany’s policy as we knew before. Indeed, the grand taskmaster history left little choice for Olaf Szholz’s previously expressed sympathies towards Social Democratic predecessor […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The 2022 U.S. Midterms: Implications for the Security of Central and Eastern Europe (Katarzyna Pisarska)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 26, November 16 2022 Overview: An Election Of Global Concern The United States 2022 midterm elections have in the past been of little interests to the majority of global publics. This is because they were both predictable (the U.S. Congress usually falling into the hand of the party opposing the sitting President) and inconsequential for the general direction of U.S. foreign policy (which over the last three decades enjoyed a large bipartisan consensus). Since however the 2016 election of Donald J. Trump as President this has changed. All U.S. elections – including midterms – have become a truly global concern, as they now decide on the […]

PULASKI POLICY PAPER: The Biden administration’s new security and defense strategies – a guide for a new Cold War (Tomasz Smura)

Pulaski Policy Paper no 25, November 11 2022 In October 2022, nearly two years after the Joe Biden administration took power in the United States, a new National Security Strategy and a tighter National Defense Strategy were adopted. Both documents identify China as the main challenge to U.S. national security, at the same time – importantly from the perspective of NATO’s eastern flank countries – Russia was identified in them as the most important current threat to the international order and the U.S. administration announced a continuation of its policy towards the country, including further support for Ukraine. Strategies for national security Prepared under the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 by […]

REPORT: Establishment of the Tribunal on the Aggression of Russia Against Ukraine: Supreme Level of Responsibility to Prevent New Conflicts in Europe

On February 24, 2022, Russia extended its armed aggression against Ukraine, unleashed in 2014 with the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and with the temporary occupation of certain areas of Donetsk and Luhansk regions.

Webinar on hybrid warfare in CEE region

The Pulaski Foundation organized a webinar on the hybrid warfare in the CEE region. Participants pointed out the diversity of hybrid threats, which are below the threshold of armed attack and are a serious challenge for security of Europe.

Warsaw Security Forum – a chance for constructive conclusions and analyzes after more than 200 days of Russian aggression against Ukraine.

200 days ago Russian troops invaded Ukraine. This open incursion into a sovereign territory of one of European countries shook Europe and drastically changed the foreign policy of the Euro-Atlantic zone. Since then, politicians, experts and ordinary people have been trying to make sense of the rapidly changing reality by analyzing the news coming from the front line. Since 2014, the Casimir Pulaski Foundation is the host of the Warsaw Security Forum. The conference, organized this year for the ninth time, is a platform for analyzing current challenges for the geopolitical environment in the transatlantic area and serves to develop specific proposals and solutions to be applied by decision-makers in […]

International Defence Industry Exhibition – MSPO (6-9.09.2022)

The representatives of the Casimir Pulaski Foundation will participate in this years’ edition of the International Defence Industry Exhibition. The MSPO a comprehensive presentation of military equipment, business meetings and contracts signed between manufacturers from different continents and the defence sectors. MSPO is ranked third among all Europe’s exhibitions, after the Paris and London trade shows and will be organized from 6 to 9 September 2022 in Kielce, Poland. The 2021 MSPO hosted around 400 companies from 27 countries, more than a dozen foreign delegations and almost 11,000 visitors. The XXX edition of the MSPO will showcase Polish and global defence industry helicopters, armored equipment and rockets, explosives, chemical troops […]